ATP6V0A1 encoding the a1-subunit of the V0 domain of vacuolar H+-ATPases is essential for brain development in humans and mice

Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) transport protons across cellular membranes to acidify various organelles. ATP6V0A1 encodes the a1-subunit of the V0 domain of V-ATPases, which is strongly expressed in neurons. However, its role in brain development is unknown. Here we report four individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with ATP6V0A1 variants: two individuals with a de novo missense variant (R741Q) and the other two individuals with biallelic variants comprising one almost complete loss-of-function variant and one missense variant (A512P and N534D). Lysosomal acidification is significantly impaired in cell lines expressing three missense ATP6V0A1 mutants.

Pathogenic UBA1 variants associated with VEXAS syndrome in Japanese patients with relapsing polychondritis

UBA1 was examined in 13 of the 14 patients; 73% (8/11) of the male patients had somatic UBA1 variants (c.121A>C, c.121A>G or c.122T>C resulting in p.Met41Leu, p.Met41Val or p.Met41Thr, respectively). All the variant-positive patients had systemic symptoms, including a significantly high prevalence of skin lesions. ddPCR detected low prevalence (0.14%) of somatic variant (c.121A>C) in one female patient, which was subsequently confirmed by PNA-clamping PCR.

Complete sequencing of expanded SAMD12 repeats by long-read sequencing and Cas9-mediated enrichment

A pentanucleotide TTTCA repeat insertion into a polymorphic TTTTA repeat element in SAMD12 causes benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy. Although the precise determination of the entire SAMD12 repeat sequence is important for molecular diagnosis and research, obtaining this sequence remains challenging when using conventional genomic/genetic methods, and even short-read and long-read next-generation sequencing technologies have been insufficient.

LOTUS, an endogenous Nogo receptor antagonist, is involved in synapse and memory formation

The Nogo signal is involved in impairment of memory formation. We previously reported the lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS) as an endogenous antagonist of the Nogo receptor 1 that mediates the inhibition of axon growth and synapse formation. Moreover, we found that LOTUS plays an essential role in neural circuit formation and nerve regeneration. However, the effects of LOTUS on synapse formation and memory function have not been elucidated. Here, we clearly showed the involvement of LOTUS in synapse formation and memory function.