Whole-Tissue Three-Dimensional Imaging of Rice at Single-Cell Resolution

The three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of cells in tissues provides an anatomical basis for analyzing physiological and biochemical aspects of plant and animal cellular development and function. In this study, we established a protocol for tissue clearing and 3D imaging in rice. Our protocol is based on three improvements: clearing with iTOMEI (clearing solution suitable for plants), developing microscopic conditions in which the Z step is optimized for 3D reconstruction, and optimizing cell-wall staining.

Phosphopeptide enrichment using Phos-tag technology reveals functional phosphorylation of the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2

Phosphorylation of viral proteins serves as a regulatory mechanism during the intracellular life cycle of infected viruses. There is therefore a pressing need to develop a method to efficiently purify and enrich phosphopeptides derived from viral particles in biological samples. In this study, we utilized Phos-tag technology to analyze the functional phosphorylation of the nucleocapsid protein (N protein; NP) of severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Ideal Test Time for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Contact Tracing

Background: Epidemiological contact tracing is a powerful tool to rapidly detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in persons with a close contact history with COVID-19-affected patients. However, it remains unclear whom and when should be PCR tested among the close contact subjects. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 817 close contact subjects, including 144 potentially SARS-CoV-2-infected persons. The patient characteristics and contact type, duration between the date of the close contact and specimen sampling, and PCR test results in PCR positive and negative persons were compared. Results: We found that male gender {adjusted odds ratio 1.747 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.180–2.608]}, age ≥ 60 [1.749 (95% CI 1.07–2.812)], and household contact [2.14 (95% CI 1.388–3.371)] are independent risk factors for close contact SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptomatic subjects were predicted 6.179 (95% CI 3.985–9.61) times more likely to be infected compared to asymptomatic ones. We could observe PCR test positivity between days 1 and 17 after close contact. However, no subject could be found with a Ct-value <30, considered less infective, after day 14 of close contact. Conclusions: Based on our results, we suggest that contact tracing should be performed on the high-risk subjects between days 3 and 13 after close contacts.

Galectin-9 restricts hepatitis B virus replication via p62/SQSTM1-mediated selective autophagy of viral core proteins

Autophagy has been linked to a wide range of functions, including a degradative process that defends host cells against pathogens.