Although brassinosteroids (BRs) have been proposed to be negative regulators of photomorphogenesis, their physiological role therein has remained elusive. We studied light-induced photomorphogenic development in the presence of the BR biosynthesis inhibitor, brassinazole (Brz). Hook opening was inhibited in the presence of Brz; this inhibition was reversed in the presence of brassinolide (BL). Hook opening was accompanied by cell expansion on the inner (concave) side of the hook. This cell expansion was inhibited in the presence of Brz but was restored upon the addition of BL. We then evaluated light-induced organ-specific expression of three BR biosynthesis genes, DWF4, BR6ox1 and BR6ox2, and a BR-responsive gene, SAUR-AC1, during the photomorphogenesis of Arabidopsis.
The structural unit of eukaryotic chromatin is a nucleosome, comprising two histone H2A-H2B heterodimers and one histone (H3-H4)2 tetramer, wrapped around by ∼146 bp of DNA. The N-terminal flexible histone tails stick out from the histone core and have extensive posttranslational modifications, causing epigenetic changes of chromatin. Although crystal and cryogenic electron microscopy structures of nucleosomes are available, the flexible tail structures remain elusive. Using NMR, we have examined the dynamics of histone H3 tails in nucleosomes containing unmodified and tetra-acetylated H4 tails.
An exciting debate has emerged whether bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination is effective for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Some advocated that BCG-vaccinated people are less suffered from the virus because BCG vaccination is recommendedin COVID-19 high burden countries. However, the others objected because this seemingly attractive relationship is explainable with confounding factors.
Herein, we present the rapid synthesis of mono-dispersed carbon quantum dots (C-QDs) via a single-step microwave plasma-enhanced decomposition (MPED) process. Highly-crystalline C-QDs were synthesized in a matter of 5 min using the fenugreek seeds as a sustainable carbon source. It is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, where C-QDs were synthesized using MPED via natural carbon precursor. Synthesis of C-QDs requires no external temperature other than hydrogen (H2) plasma. Plasma containing the high-energy electrons and activated hydrogen ions predominantly provide the required energy directly into the reaction volume, thus maximizing the atom economy.
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