Lubiprostone in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2a trial

The laxative drug lubiprostone improves intestinal permeability in healthy volunteers. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of lubiprostone in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with constipation via attenuation of intestinal permeability.

A Japanese case of COVID-19: An autopsy report

A 93‐year‐old woman was admitted with a 10‐day history of cough and prostration. Thoracic computed tomography revealed extensive ground‐glass opacities in both the lungs. The polymerase chain reaction test of sputum for severe acute respiratory syndrome‐coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) was positive. She was treated with antiviral agents and steroid pulse therapy. However, her oxygen saturation gradually declined, and she died 10 days after hospitalization.

Structure-Based Functional Modification Study of a Cyanobacterial Chloride Pump for Transporting Multiple Anions

Understanding the structure and functional mechanisms of cyanobacterial halorhodopsin has become increasingly important, given the report that Synechocystis halorhodopsin (SyHR), a homolog of the cyanobacterial halorhodopsin from Mastigocladopsis repens (MrHR), can take up divalent ions, such as SO42−, as well as chloride ions. Here, the crystal structure of MrHR, containing a unique “TSD” chloride ion conduction motif, was determined as a homotrimer at a resolution of 1.9 Å.

Light Activates Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis to Promote Hook Opening and Petiole Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

Although brassinosteroids (BRs) have been proposed to be negative regulators of photomorphogenesis, their physiological role therein has remained elusive. We studied light-induced photomorphogenic development in the presence of the BR biosynthesis inhibitor, brassinazole (Brz). Hook opening was inhibited in the presence of Brz; this inhibition was reversed in the presence of brassinolide (BL). Hook opening was accompanied by cell expansion on the inner (concave) side of the hook. This cell expansion was inhibited in the presence of Brz but was restored upon the addition of BL. We then evaluated light-induced organ-specific expression of three BR biosynthesis genes, DWF4, BR6ox1 and BR6ox2, and a BR-responsive gene, SAUR-AC1, during the photomorphogenesis of Arabidopsis.