Expansion of droplets during speaking and singing in Japanese

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of infection clusters associated with choral singing have been reported. Singing generates droplets and carries the risk of spreading infection. However, no reports have explored droplet flight and aerosol production rates by singing and speaking in Japanese.

Mechanistic insights into intramembrane proteolysis by E. coli site-2 protease homolog RseP

Site-2 proteases are a conserved family of intramembrane proteases that cleave transmembrane substrates to regulate signal transduction and maintain proteostasis. Here, we elucidated crystal structures of inhibitor-bound forms of bacterial site-2 proteases including Escherichia coli RseP.

Fragmentation of Ambulatory Care among Older Adults: an Exhaustive Database Study in an Ageing City in Japan

Objectives Continuity of care is a core dimension of primary care, and better continuity is associated with better patient outcomes. Therefore, care fragmentation can be an indicator to assess the quality of primary care, especially in countries without formal gatekeeping system, such as Japan. Thus, this study aimed to describe care fragmentation among older adults in an ageing city in Japan.

Chromatin structure undergoes global and local reorganization during murine dendritic cell development and activation

Significance Dendritic cells (DCs), essential for immune responses, originate from bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via intermediate progenitors. In eukaryotic nuclei, DNA is packaged into 3D chromatin structures that have been implicated in gene regulation. However, the chromatin structure reorganization dynamics during DC differentiation remain unknown. Here, we analyzed 3D chromatin structures in DCs and their progenitors. In genomic regions at DC-specific genes, the 3D chromatin structures were reorganized upon DC differentiation. The transcription factor IRF8 promoted chromatin structure changes in DC progenitors, leading to DC-specific gene induction. Strikingly, the chromatin structures of infection-inducible genes were preestablished in unstimulated DCs. Our findings advance the understanding of DC biology and basic principles of gene regulation for cell differentiation and host defense.