Effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and their combination on albuminuria in diabetic patients
Azushima, Hiromichi Wakui, Kouichi Tamura

Aims Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease. Albuminuria is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-Is) and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) protect against albuminuria; however, their combined effects on albuminuria are unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to investigate the effects of SGLT2-Is, MRAs and their combination on albuminuria in type 2 DM.

Transform in seconds, ready for fertilization.

Maruyama and his colleagues including Project Assistant Professor Naoya Sugi and Rie Izumi developed new live-imaging system and captured the moment of sperm cell maturation prior to double fertilization in a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

F-actin regulates polarized secretion of pollen tube attractants in Arabidopsis synergid cells

Pollen tube attraction is a key event of sexual reproduction in flowering plants. In the ovule, two synergid cells neighboring the egg cell control pollen tube arrival via the active secretion of attractant peptides such as AtLURE1 and XIUQIU from the filiform apparatus (FA) facing toward the micropyle. Distinctive cell polarity together with longitudinal F-actin and microtubules are hallmarks of the synergid cell in various species, though the functions of these cellular structures are unclear.

Early alveolar epithelial cell necrosis is a potential driver of COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome

Highlights •An old woman developed interstitial pneumonia after mRNA-1273 vaccination. •The patient's symptoms, laboratory findings, and images were similar to those of COVID-19. •Serological and pathological tests were useful in diagnosing vaccine-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. •Serum level of antibodies against spike protein was extremely high.