The accumulation of epigenetic alterations is one of the major causes of tumorigenesis. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns cause genome instability and silencing of tumor suppressor genes in various types of tumors. Therefore, drugs that target DNA methylation-regulating factors have great potential for cancer therapy.
The cytoplasmic polyamine maintains cellular homeostasis by chelating toxic metal cations, regulating transcriptional activity, and protecting DNA. ATP13A2 was identified as a lysosomal polyamine exporter responsible for polyamine release into the cytosol, and its dysfunction is associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other neural degradation diseases. ATP13A2 belongs to the P5 subfamily of the P-type ATPase family, but its mechanisms remain unknown.
Microtubules, the most rigid components of the cytoskeleton, can be key transduction elements between external forces and the cellular environment. Mechanical forces induce microtubule deformation, which is presumed to be critical for the mechanoregulation of cellular events.
Melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) transduce inhibitory signaling by melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), which is associated with sleep induction and circadian rhythm modulation. Although recently reported crystal structures of ligand-bound MT1 and MT2 elucidated the basis of ligand entry and recognition, the ligand-induced MT1 rearrangement leading to Gi-coupling remains unclear.
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