Moving toward generalizable NZ-1 labeling for 3D structure determination with optimized epitope-tag insertion

Antibody labeling has been conducted extensively for structure determination using both X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy (EM). However, establishing target-specific antibodies is a prerequisite for applying antibody-assisted structural analysis. To expand the applicability of this strategy, an alternative method has been developed to prepare an antibody complex by inserting an exogenous epitope into the target.

LOTUS, an endogenous Nogo receptor antagonist, is involved in synapse and memory formation

The Nogo signal is involved in impairment of memory formation. We previously reported the lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS) as an endogenous antagonist of the Nogo receptor 1 that mediates the inhibition of axon growth and synapse formation. Moreover, we found that LOTUS plays an essential role in neural circuit formation and nerve regeneration. However, the effects of LOTUS on synapse formation and memory function have not been elucidated. Here, we clearly showed the involvement of LOTUS in synapse formation and memory function.

Structure-Based Functional Modification Study of a Cyanobacterial Chloride Pump for Transporting Multiple Anions

Understanding the structure and functional mechanisms of cyanobacterial halorhodopsin has become increasingly important, given the report that Synechocystis halorhodopsin (SyHR), a homolog of the cyanobacterial halorhodopsin from Mastigocladopsis repens (MrHR), can take up divalent ions, such as SO42−, as well as chloride ions. Here, the crystal structure of MrHR, containing a unique “TSD” chloride ion conduction motif, was determined as a homotrimer at a resolution of 1.9 Å.

Acetylated histone H4 tail enhances histone H3 tail acetylation by altering their mutual dynamics in the nucleosome

The structural unit of eukaryotic chromatin is a nucleosome, comprising two histone H2A-H2B heterodimers and one histone (H3-H4)2 tetramer, wrapped around by ∼146 bp of DNA. The N-terminal flexible histone tails stick out from the histone core and have extensive posttranslational modifications, causing epigenetic changes of chromatin. Although crystal and cryogenic electron microscopy structures of nucleosomes are available, the flexible tail structures remain elusive. Using NMR, we have examined the dynamics of histone H3 tails in nucleosomes containing unmodified and tetra-acetylated H4 tails.