Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar or sugi) is one of the most important coniferous tree species in Japan and breeding programs for this species have been launched since 1950s. Genome editing technology can be used to shorten the breeding period.
Culture evolves in ways that are analogous to, but distinct from, genomes. Previous studies examined similarities between cultural variation and genetic variation (population history) at small scales within language families, but few studies have empirically investigated these parallels across language families using diverse cultural data.
Melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) transduce inhibitory signaling by melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), which is associated with sleep induction and circadian rhythm modulation. Although recently reported crystal structures of ligand-bound MT1 and MT2 elucidated the basis of ligand entry and recognition, the ligand-induced MT1 rearrangement leading to Gi-coupling remains unclear.
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