Acetylated histone H4 tail enhances histone H3 tail acetylation by altering their mutual dynamics in the nucleosome

The structural unit of eukaryotic chromatin is a nucleosome, comprising two histone H2A-H2B heterodimers and one histone (H3-H4)2 tetramer, wrapped around by ∼146 bp of DNA. The N-terminal flexible histone tails stick out from the histone core and have extensive posttranslational modifications, causing epigenetic changes of chromatin. Although crystal and cryogenic electron microscopy structures of nucleosomes are available, the flexible tail structures remain elusive. Using NMR, we have examined the dynamics of histone H3 tails in nucleosomes containing unmodified and tetra-acetylated H4 tails.

Current national policies for infant universal bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination were associated with lower mortality from coronavirus disease 2019

An exciting debate has emerged whether bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination is effective for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Some advocated that BCG-vaccinated people are less suffered from the virus because BCG vaccination is recommendedin COVID-19 high burden countries. However, the others objected because this seemingly attractive relationship is explainable with confounding factors.

Ultrafast synthesis of carbon quantum dots from fenugreek seeds using microwave plasma enhanced decomposition: application of C-QDs to grow fluorescent protein crystals

Herein, we present the rapid synthesis of mono-dispersed carbon quantum dots (C-QDs) via a single-step microwave plasma-enhanced decomposition (MPED) process. Highly-crystalline C-QDs were synthesized in a matter of 5 min using the fenugreek seeds as a sustainable carbon source. It is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, where C-QDs were synthesized using MPED via natural carbon precursor. Synthesis of C-QDs requires no external temperature other than hydrogen (H2) plasma. Plasma containing the high-energy electrons and activated hydrogen ions predominantly provide the required energy directly into the reaction volume, thus maximizing the atom economy.

Clinical course of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in individuals present during the outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship

We investigated the clinical course of individuals with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who were transferred from the Diamond Princess cruise ship to 12 local hospitals. The conditions and clinical courses of patients with pneumonia were compared with those of patients without pneumonia. Among 70 patients (median age: 67 years) analyzed, the major symptoms were fever (64.3%), cough (54.3%), and general fatigue (24.3%). Forty-three patients (61.4%) had pneumonia. Higher body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate as well as higher of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lower serum albumin level and lymphocyte count were associated with the presence of pneumonia.