Chromatin structure undergoes global and local reorganization during murine dendritic cell development and activation

Significance Dendritic cells (DCs), essential for immune responses, originate from bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via intermediate progenitors. In eukaryotic nuclei, DNA is packaged into 3D chromatin structures that have been implicated in gene regulation. However, the chromatin structure reorganization dynamics during DC differentiation remain unknown. Here, we analyzed 3D chromatin structures in DCs and their progenitors. In genomic regions at DC-specific genes, the 3D chromatin structures were reorganized upon DC differentiation. The transcription factor IRF8 promoted chromatin structure changes in DC progenitors, leading to DC-specific gene induction. Strikingly, the chromatin structures of infection-inducible genes were preestablished in unstimulated DCs. Our findings advance the understanding of DC biology and basic principles of gene regulation for cell differentiation and host defense.

Structure of the human galanin receptor 2 bound to galanin and Gq reveals the basis of ligand specificity and how binding affects the G-protein interface

Galanin is a neuropeptide expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, where it regulates various processes including neuroendocrine release, cognition, and nerve regeneration.

Structure of SARS-CoV-2 membrane protein essential for virus assembly

The coronavirus membrane protein (M) is the most abundant viral structural protein and plays a central role in virus assembly and morphogenesis. However, the process of M protein-driven virus assembly are largely unknown. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the SARS-CoV-2 M protein in two different conformations.

An autopsy case of COVID-19-like acute respiratory distress syndrome after mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

Highlights •An old woman developed interstitial pneumonia after mRNA-1273 vaccination. •The patient's symptoms, laboratory findings, and images were similar to those of COVID-19. •Serological and pathological tests were useful in diagnosing vaccine-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. •Serum level of antibodies against spike protein was extremely high.